July 1996

Annual Report and Revised Budget Sheets for the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER Program

(DEB 94-11974)

Description of on-going LTER research

at the Virginia Coast Reserve

Written progress reports on each research projects active during 1995 and 1996 are published on the VCR LTER webpage:


A brief narrative review of the major research activities of the program follow.

The focus of the VCR LTER continues to be centered around the role of the joint dynamics of the land, sea and groundwater table free surfaces. Fresh groundwater and sea levels are monitored at numerous locations. Lagoon bottom surfaces are being mapped as are island elevations in regions frequented by storm generated overwash. Detailed, high resolution topographic maps are being produced for most of the intensive research sites. In most areas of the VCR microtopographic variations are very important in modulating critical processes. Our program of monitoring land, sea and groundwater surfaces is an on going effort in which each year new surveys are completed thus enriching the base line data used by all VCR scientists.

Our experimental programs treatments involve artificially changing land, sea or fresh groundwater table and recording changes in vegetation structure and composition at the experimental sites. Manipulation of groundwater, sea levels and land levels is restricted to small areas. We use solar powered pumps to change the flooding depth and duration in a section of marsh, in a flume, to investigate changes in sea level and flooding duration on community structure. We also use solar power to pump water from and to isolated topographic maximums (.5 to 1.5m) in the marshes to control fresh groundwater elevations in order to mimic climate change (rain water input increases and decreases 15%) to study vegetation changes. Also, in limited extent we alter the level of sections of marshes to bring about a change in relative sea level. In this experiment we are interested in cord grass productivity changes in response to flooding depth. These experiments are long-term, on-going efforts with annual samples for vegetation analysis.

We also use "natural experiments" or disturbances which cause changes of the land surface elevation and land surface slopes and as a consequence changes in groundwater elevation within the land. By dating the origin of these changes, we have established three 100 year plus chronosequences around which observations and short term experiments are undertaken. We have established a cross-island chronosequence of subaerial landform elements that vary in age from 150 years to land currently being deposited. Along this transect we are engaged in studies of primary production, nitrogen fixation, nitrogen augmentation, decomposition rates, root production and root decay and the role of ground elevation variations along the transect on these processes. We have also established a marsh chronosequence that spans a 120 year of marsh development. The structure of marsh communities, primary and secondary production and marsh biogeochemistry processes are being studied on the marsh chronosequence. Within the region of the marsh chronosequence we have also established a chronosequence of tidal creeks that also vary in age from 5 to 120 years. The morphology, biogeochemistry and community structure of the marsh creek and creek bank environments are the subject of this study.

In 1994/1995 we established that shoreline change rates had reversed sign in 1969 and demonstrated that this reversal (erosion to accretion or accretion to erosion) is evident from Florida to New Jersey. We also established that an earlier reversal had taken place in the 1870s. During the is past year we completed analyses of the line of vegetation which parallels the shoreline and found reversals in the landward or seaward encroachments of this vegetation line in the 1960s and in the 1870s as we had found for the shoreline. We also established that the vegetation line (ecotone) at Cape Hatteras and Cape May New Jersey also has experienced a similar history indicating a pan-Atlantic causality. We are now studying the role of wave climates over the last century through study of the coastal storms and the Bermuda high pressure cell, the two main wave producing weather systems.

Fresh groundwater at the VCR usually has a seaward sloping surface and thus a net flowpath toward the sea. Transport within this flowpath of nutrients and microbes is being studied in a number of places at the VCR for a variety of purposes. Agricultural nutrients may enter the lagoons along such flow paths. To estimate the nature of this flux we are using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen typical of agricultural fertilizer as a natural tracer. We also are beginning to look into the question of fresh water upwelling into lagoon sediments and the impact of these often nutrient rich waters on algal productivity. In an affiliated study supported by DOE we are also doing experiments on microbial transports in groundwater flow paths from uplands toward the marshes. We are especially interested in the horizontal rates of movement of microbes in coastal sandy soils.

Below ground production and decomposition studies on the sandy barrier islands and in the marshes continue. Root production and decay are studied using minirhizatron technology in permanent installations. Groundwater, nutrient availability and landscape age are the major correlates with root production. Decomposition rates in sandy barrier islands are highest in high soil moisture sites and lowest in the highest elevation and driest sites. Decomposition bag studies in the marshes continue. Decomposition is rapid total carbon in the bags is also subject to the invasion of cord grass roots into the bag. After several years of decline, the organic matter in the bag increases to levels higher than the start of the experiments.

The VCR LTER has been making innovative use of the World-Wide Web (WWW) to facilitate multi-institutional ecological research. The VCR/LTER WWW Page (http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/) makes extensive use of forms, many of them linked directly to relational databases, to convert the WWW Page into a two-way conduit for information. Investigators from seven different universities in four states enter

information on projects, planned activities, research summaries and data sets. In turn, they have access to those materials, plus archives of imagery and data, maps, and images. WWW-based software tools are developed to automate information processing and reducing delays in providing investigators with needed information. These web tools are now in use at the Network Office, Konza and Luquillo LTERs. They have also been applied to the LMER, LTER, JGOFS Common Future Workshop and will be used to develop the regionalization workshop to be held at the October 1996 CC meeting at Harvard Forest..

Our research on upland shrub communities focuses on competition and facilitation among species to influence small-scale distribution patterns and succession patterns. The invasion of Myrica cerifera shrub seedling into grass-dominated swales appears to be facilitated by the grasses, which buffer the seedlings from high temperatures and high light. Similarly, Juniperus virginiana trees act as nurse plants to facilitate the establishment of later succession woody seedlings. Field and laboratory experiments are continuing to identify and quantify these facultative processes, as well as potential competitive interactions between the grasses and shrub seedling. The balance between competition and facilitation may be controlled by soil N levels.

Sediment transport onto and off the marsh surface is being recorded directly through deposition surfaces and indirectly through analysis of sediment fluxes through tidal cycles. Sedimentation rates are critical in an area subject to sea level rise. In adequate sedimentation results in the loss (erosion) of marshes. Sea level rise also alters the horizontal extent of ecosystems controlled by tidal flooding. We continue to use remote sensing to document these changes. Horizontal displacement of up to 1 m per year are now documented.

Population structure and dynamics of small mammal communities continues to focus on the role of disturbance. During periods of hurricane or storm flooding from rising tides, there is limited habitat available for small mammals which can give rise to migration from island to island or island to mainland causing a dispersal of genes throughout the barrier island ecosystem. Global Positioning System technology is being used to produce three-dimensional maps of barrier islands of the Virginia Coast Reserve. The barrier island trap grids are within the flooding zone of hurricanes and winter northeasters. Recorded tidal data integrated into the topographic mapping will allow our team to quantify several parameters which may lead to migration or extinction of small mammals.

We are using microsatellite markers to describe genetic relationships among insular mammal populations which appear to be subject to periodic extinction and colonization. Microsatellites are widely dispersed in mammalian genomes, ten to be highly polymorphic, require only non-destructive tissue samples, and can be detected by PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. As a test of this application, 24 meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) were collected from two small freshwater marsh islands and their adjacent mainlands (4 populations, 6 voles/population). DNA was extracted from 0.5-g samples of ear tissue, and subjected to PCR amplification using commercially available microsatellite primers previously identified in the laboratory mouse. Seven of 48 tested primers amplified vole DNA. Five of these vole microsatellites were polymorphic, with 2-7 alleles per locus. Both allelic diversity and heterozygosity were higher in island populations. Mainland populations were more similar to one another than island populations. Microsatellites offer a high-resolution tool for the analysis

New (1995-1996) LTER research at the Virginia Coast Reserve

Tidal Volume Project -- During 1995 new research initiatives were begun in a number of areas. A program to establish the tidal prism in Hog Island Bay was begun. Details bathymetry models were developed using fathometers, GPS and thematic mapper images. These volume models will be essential to future work dealing with carbon and nutrients budgets.

Colonial Bird Biogeography -- We also began a GPS coordinates program for our colonial bird studies which then will permit the development of bird-layers in our project GIS.

Small Mammal Exclosures -- A herbivore exclosure treatment focusing mammalian impacts on vegetation. was implemented along the Hog Island Chronosequence in 1996 in which above and below ground productivity are in progress.

Vole Population Dynamics -- VCR scientists have also begun using microsatellite genetic markers for the analysis of meadow vole population relationships and the data from these studies will be archived as part of our small mammal biogeography study program. An extensive program of tree-cores was initiated on the Parramore Island maritime forest to establish the age structure of the loblolly pine population.

Summer Swell and Climate Change -- To better understand the long-term history of shoreline reversals observed earlier (1969 and in 1870s) a detailed study of the Bermuda High is in progress. The Bermuda High produces waves from the southeast which can move sand northward. Changes in this high pressure system since 1899 will be compared with already completed studies of the winter storms in the area. These winter storms drive sand southward along the coast. We know that they reached peak frequency in the 1960s just prior to the reversal in the direction of coastal erosion.

Tidal Creek Chronosequence -- The dates of tidal creek origin were established using aerial photography and survey maps. A chronosequence of tidal creeks with ages from 5 to 120+ years is established and the morphology, community structure and bioigeochemistry is being studied.

Status of VCR LTER synthesis activities.

At the January VCR All Scientists Meeting in Charlottesville [http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/elecvol/VCRASC96/] the structure (chapters and authors) for our first synthesis volume was crafted [http://atlantic.evsc.Virginia.EDU/pi/synthesis/]. Bob Christian (East Carolina University and David Smith (University of Virginia) agreed to co-edit the volume. It is our intention to publish this volume in the new LTER site synthesis series by Oxford University Press. One of the conclusion of the planning process for this volume was that much of ecological theory is based on terrestrial ecosystems and that this theory needs to be revisited relative to coastal dynamics. To that we will use seminar courses at UVa and a them for our 1997 VCR All Scientists Meeting to organize or work on ecological theory in the coastal zone. Our schedule for work on our site synthesis volume is completed draft chapters by the time of the mid-site review in 1997.

Modeling synthetic activities continue in three areas: forest modeling, shoreline and strand line ecotone dynamics and island rotation dynamics.

Cross-site activities at the VCR LTER site

Bruce P. Hayden: Contributed chapter on climate for the Konza LTER site synthesis volume * Advisory Panel for the Luquillo LTER site. * Tornadoes as dispersal agents of fish with J. Magnuson NTL.

Frank P. Day: LTER Workshop on Soil Methods - March 1996 at Sevilleta.

Linda K. Blum: LTER LIDET research program member.

John H Porter: Develeoped WWW-page for MODLERS activities. Spring 1996. Developed automatic Personal Web Page in use at several sites. Data committee member.* Advisory Panel for the Luquillo LTER site.* Developed regionalization web page.

Network, Intersite and Network Activities

Bruce P. Hayden: LTER CC and EC member * Chair LTER Publications Committee * Member the LTER Climate Committee * Member of the LTER Portugal/Spain ILTER delegation (Spring 1996). * Ran workshop on LTER publication needs at the 1995 ESA meeting. * Negotiated LTER book contracted with Oxford Press. * Submitted proposal to hold LMER/LTER workshop in program merger which funded and held July 18,19 & 20, 1996). * Served on Advisory Panel for the Luquillo LTER site (1996) * LTER contributing member to the ESA-ASA planning group for the SBI workshop on detecting long term trends in ecological data. * Assisted in the NETWORK Office site renewal proposal and site visit. * Established an LTER regionalization WEB page for the October 96 CC meeting * Participant and LTER representative to the Mid-Atlantic FRAMEWORK workshop initiated by the White House Science Office. * Continued publication the news letter CED.

Frank P. Day: LTER Workshop on Soil Methods - March 1996 at Sevilleta; developed book on standard soil methods to be published by Oxford University Press..

Linda K. Blum: Member of the Hungarian ILTER delegation visit and workshop to develop collaborative research proposals, Budapest, Hungary * LTER LIDET Workshop, Sevilleta LTER.

John H Porter: ILTER: Visit to Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama and the Organization of Tropical Studies (OTS) in Costa Rica. * LTER Information Managers Workshop: Participant. Summer 1995. LTER DataTask: Member 1995-1996. * NSF Site Visits: ARC and BNZ site reviews. Summer 1995. * NASA: Participated in MODLERS workshop * X-Roots Workshop: Participated in a workshop aimed at integrating. LTER Climate Data into advanced relational databases.

Robert R. Christian: Member of the LTER Portugal/Spain ILTER delegation (Spring 1996).. * Working with Italian colleagues from the Universities of Parma and Ferrara in developing an LTER program in Italy.

Iris Anderson: Host for visit by scientists of the Czech Republic to the Coweeta LTER site.* Collaboration with Dr. Vera Straskrabova, director of the Hydrobiological Institute of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic and Dr. Martin Cerny, Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research in the Czech Republic.

Steven Macko: Member of the LTER Eastern Europe ILTER delegation (Spring 1996).

Special Findings in 1996 (Nuggets) --

In 1996 we established that reversals in the direction of succession on Hog Island happened in the late 1960s. Sections of the islands that were quasi-stable as grasslands prior to this date began to be colonized by woody species. Other sections of the Hog Island that were characterized by woody vegetation were reverting to grassland land cover types. This 1969 change in the direction of succession was also found to have happened at the Cape Hatteras National Seashore and on Cape May Island in New Jersey. The timing of these changes in succession match earlier reported changes in beach erosion and accretion.

Sparsely vegetated salt pans and salt barrens on Hog Island were shown to be associated with a subterranean plume of hypersalintiy that extends down into the island sands as least 9 meters. Hypersaline waters produced at the surface by evaporation and evapotranspiration gives rise to dense water that sinks down through the islands leaving fresher, less dense waters at the surface..

end of part I.

Status of LTER Data Sets

New Data Sets

Data collection was initiated on an exclosure system designed to eliminate mammalian herbiovres while controlling for avian seed input.. This exclosure is integrated into ongoing monitoring of shrub succession.

GPS Survey 1.01 POST-PROCESSING RESULTS OF THE VCR/LTER GPS NETWORK. This is an updated list Global Positioning System benchmarks of the VCR/LTER GPS Network utilizing GPS Survey 1.01 software. Our previous network was processed utilizing Trimvec Plus software in 1992. (URL: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/~crc7m/gpsurv.html)

GPS POINTS ON VCR/LTER SMALL MAMMAL GRIDS. This is a list of each individual trap on two barrier island and two mainland sites (8 grids - 400 traps) providing Latitude, Longitude and elevation above Mean Sea Level.

(URL: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/~crc7m/mammal.html)

GPS POINTS FOR SHIP SHOAL ISLAND TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. This is a constantly growing list of x,y,z's for 3-D topographic mapping of Myrtle and Ship Shoal Islands on the Virginia Coast Reserve. (URL: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/~crc7m/m_topo.html)

(URL: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/~crc7m/ss_topo.html)

GPS POINTS FOR VCR BIRD MONITORING PROGRAM. This is a list of benchmarks utilized in the bird monitoring program of the Virginia Coast Reserve. These particular benchmarks provide information on elevation of nesting sites above Mean High Water. (URL: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/~crc7m/bird.html)

DATA on line: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/data.html

Putting data ONLINE is a high priority at the VCR and we have made significant progress in getting data sets ONLINE for free and easy use. Data sets and metadata companion files continue to be posted on the our web site. We have posted our first model output data animation which shows shoreline history for Hog Island over the last 200 years. [http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/presentations/shaomodel95/demo.html]

and have developed new tool to generate web directly from data bases. In this way the web pages are build at the user requests them. Displays are as up-to-date as the data base files.

Physical Data ONLINE

Weather from VCR weather stations

Tides (predicted and observed) from VCR tide stations

Climate Data (from NOAA)

Waves (from NOAA)

VCR Hurricane Record

Long-term Precip. Record

Climate Data for Painter VA

Overwash disturbance probabilities on Hog Island

Biological Data ONLINE

Vegetation Database

VCR Bird Database

VCR Fish Database

Island Vegetation Maps - 1974

Small Mammal Survey - 1975/77

Vegetation Species Codes

Aquatic Invertebrate Species List

Small Mammal Photos

Spartina alterniflora Leaf & NPP Measurements - A

Spartina alterniflora Leaf & NPP Measurements - B

Images and Geographical Data ONLINE

Aerial Photos and Satellite Images

GIS Maps and Figures

Topographic Surveys

Photographs from the Eastern Shore

Global Positioning System

Northampton County, VA GIS

UTM coordinates of Research Sites

NASA MODIS Imagery (July 1993)

Model Data in Animation ONLINE

Shoreline dynamics animation of model by Shao et. al.

see: http://atlantic.evsc.virginia.edu/presentations/shaomodel95/demo.html

Up to date status of data sets

VCR data sets are updated on several time scales. Geophysical data from electronic sensors go through about a 1 month quality control evaluation period and then are posted on the Web. Data sets that are subjected to extensive processing such as GPS, water table depths, fathometer derived water depths, and image analyses are usually processed within 6 months of collection and are put on line. Most data sets that are in the area of an individual PIs field work become available at the end or the field season. The most pressing problem with putting data sets on line is the development of metadata files. We are building Web tools to assist in meta data file construction. At the present time the process requires desk time between the data manager and the data "owner". Many data sets collected in the early years of the VCR LTER program need to be added to the active ONLINE data archives of the project. We work at it a little each month.

Other grant support and research related to the site.

Purchase Authorization for Land to build new field station for the VCR LTER research program University of Virginia Board of Visitors. $450,000.

Grant for the constructions of a new field station for the VCR LTER research program. Mr. Paul T. Jones (Alumni of the University of Virginia) $1,000,000.

Grant to develop the Heritage Habitat Program of citizen science at the VCR LTER. gift of Robert Dolan $1000.

Application of Microsatellite Genetic Markers to Analysis of Population Structure and Biogeographic Processes Utah State University $15,000 Supported PI: Raymond D. Dueser

Comparison of the importance of microbially-based food chains in autotrophic

Virginia Graduate Marine Sciences Program - Sea Grant $88,850 Supported PI: Linda K. Blum

Organic Nitrogen Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay NOAA $32,000 Supported PI: James N. Galloway

Interacting biotic mechanisms that control shrub establishment on Atlantic Coast barrier islands Jeffress Memorial Trust $14,410 Supported PI: Donald R. Young

Luigi Gatti University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy Associated PI: Robert R. Christian

Estimating Ecosystem Attributes at Landscape Scale NASA through subcontract through Oregon State University $39.962 Supported PI: John H Porter

Development of an Electronic Database for Bird Data, developed in conjunction with Barry Truitt, VCR The Nature Conservancy, Katherine J. Ordway Foundation $4,000 Supported PI: John H Porter


(including theses and dissertations)

Aiosa, J.D. 1996. The effects of vegetation and inundation on dissolved organic carbon in a Virginia salt marsh. MS thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

Brinson, M.M., R.R. Christian, and L.K. Blum. 1995. Multiple states in the sea-level induced transition from terrestrial forest to estuary. Estuaries 18:648-659. Keywords: rising sea level, tidal marshes, zonation, Virginia, organic high marsh, intertidal low marsh, transgression, salt marshes, sea-level rise

Christian, R.R., E. Fores, F. Comin, P. Viaroli, M. Naldi, and I. Ferrari. in press. Nitrogen cycling networks of coastal ecosystems: influence of trophic status and primary producer form. . Ecological modeling

Conn, C. and F.P. Day. 1996. Response of root and cotton strip decay to nitrogen amendment along a barrier island dune chronosequence. Can. J. Bot. 74:276-284.

Day, F.P. 1995. Environmental influences on belowground decomposition on a coastal barrier island determined by cotton strip assay. Pedobiologia 39:289-303.

Day, F.P. in press. Effects of nitrogen availability on plant biomass along a barrier island dune chronosequence.

Dilustro, J.J. and F.P. Day. in press. Aboveground biomass and net primary production along a Virginia barrier island chronosequence. Amer. Mid. Nat.

Erickson, D.L. and D.R. Young. 1995. Salinity response and the potential for ocean dispersal of a barrier island strand glycophyte, Strophostyles umbellata. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 122:95-100.

Farleigh, Karen B. 1996. The influence of overwash events on the hydrology and vegetation of a pimple on Parramore Island, Virginia Coast Reserve. Undergraduate Senior Thesis, Department of Geology, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837

Farleigh, Karen L. 1996. The Influence of Overwash Events on the Hydrology and Vegetation of a Pimple on Parramore Island, Virginia Coast Reserve. Geological Society of America, Abs. w. Prog. 28/3:53.

Favret, Katherine. 1996. The influence of grass stem density on the grain size distribution on Phillips Creek Marsh, Virginia . Senior Thesis, University of Virginia, 1996

Galloway, J. N., R. W. Howarth, A. F. Michaels, S. W. Nixon, J. M. Prospero and F. J. Dentener. in press. Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets of the North Atlantic Ocean and its watershed. Biogeochemistry

Hagan, Laura B. 1996. Nucleation and evolution of coastal dunes on a low profile barrier, southern Parramore Island, Virginia. Undergraduate Senior Thesis, Department of Geology, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837. Dr. R.C. Kochel, advisor.

Hagan, Laura B. 1996. The Nucleation and Evolution of Coastal Dunes on Southern Parramore Island, Virginia. Geological Society of America, Abs. w. Prog. 28/3:61.

Hayden, B. P., M. C. F. V. Santos, G. Shao, and R. C. Kochel. 1996. Geomorphological controls on coastal vegetation at the Virginia Coast Reserve. Geomorphology 13:283-300.

Hayden, B.; J. Hayden. 1996. The Eastern Shore barrier islands: a geological profile. Virginia Marine Resource Bulletin 27: 6-8.

Joy, D.A. 1996. Juniperus virginiana: nurse plant for woody seedlings on a Virginia barrier island. MS thesis. Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

Joy, D.A. and D.R. Young. in review. Juniperus virginiana: nurse plant

or woody seedlings in coastal environments. Functional Ecology

Kastler, J.A. and P.L. Wiberg. in press. Sedimentation, accretion and erosion of Virginia salt marshes. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science

Martin, D.W. and D.R. Young. in review. Small-scale distribution and salinity response of Juniperus virginiana on an Atlantic Coast barrier island. Canadian Journal of Botany

Neikirk, Betty Berry. 1996. Exchanges of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen and Dissolved Organic Carbon between Salt Marsh Sediments and Overlying Tidal Water. M.A. thesis. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA pp. 88.

R. L. Tirrell. 1995. Response of the sediment microbial community of Spartina alterniflora roots in a Virginia salt marsh. MS thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

Semones, S.W. and D.R. Young. 1995. VAM association in the actinorhizal shrub Myrica cerifera on a Virginia, USA barrier island. Mycorrhiza 5:423-429.

Shao, G., H.H. Shugart and D.R. Young. 1995. Simulation of transpiration sensitivity to environmental changes for shrub thickets (Myrica cerifera) on a Virginia barrier island. Ecological Modeling 78:235-248. Notes: submitted by dyoung, Mon Jun 3 09:53:32 EDT 1996

Shao, G., H.H. Shugart; B.P. Hayden. 1996. Functional classification of barrier island vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Sciences 5:13- .

Snook, R.E. and F.P. Day. 1995. Community-level allometric relationships among length, planar area and biomass of fine roots on a coastal barrier island. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 122:196-202.

Stevenson, M.J. and F.P. Day. 1996. Fine root biomass distribution and production along a barrier island chronosequence. Amer. Mid. Nat. 135:().

Dailey, Susan K. 1996. Interactions of benthic communities and material fluxes across the sediment-water interface in North Carolina and Virginia estuaries. . MS thesis. East Carolina University

Taylor, James H. III. 1996. The effects of altered inundation and wrack deposition on nitrification, denitrification, and the standing stocks of nitrate and nitrite. . MS thesis. East Carolina University

Tolley, P. M. 1996. Effects of increased inundation and wrack deposition on a saltmarsh plant community. . MS thesis. East Carolina University, Greenville, NC

Tolliver, K.S., D.M. Colley and D.R. Young. 1995. Potential inhibitory effects of Myrica cerifera on Pinus taeda. American Midland Naturalist 133:256-263.::

Tolliver, K.S., D.W. Martin and D.R. Young. (in review). Freshwater and saltwater flooding response for woody species common to barrier island swales. Wetlands

Weber, E.P. and F.P. Day. in press. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the phenology of roots in a barrier island sand dune community. Plant and Soil

Wu, K. W.Y and L.K. Blum. in review. Non-Bacterial Food Sources Determine the Contribution of Bacteria to Grazers. Aquatic Microbial Ecology Keywords: bacteria, protozoa, grazing, microbial loop, trophic dynamics:

Young, D.R., G. Shao and J.H. Porter. 1995. Spatial and temporal growth dynamics of barrier island shrub thickets. American Journal of Botany 82:638-645.

Young, D.R., G. Shao and M.M. Brinson. 1995. The impact of the October 1991 northeaster storm on barrier island shrub thickets (Myrica

cerifera). Journal of Coastal Research 11:1322-1328.


WebPage Research Reports from the 1996 VCR LTER All Scientist Meeting


Megasite (MS) Studies

A second reversal in Hog Island shoreline change circa 1870. by Michael Fenster and Bruce P.Hayden

Shoreline Changes and Shrub Thicket Dynamics on Barrier Islands of Virginia: A Modeling Approach by Guofan Shao, Bruce P. Hayden, Herman H. Shugart and John H. Porter

Modeling of Shoreline Changes for Hog Barrier Islands of Virginia by Guofan Shao, Bruce P. Hayden, Herman H. Shugart, and John H. Porter

The Influence of Overwash Events on the Hydrology and Vegetation of a Pimple on Parramore Island, Virginia Coast Reserve by Karen L. Farleigh and R.C. Kochel

The Nucleation and Evolution of Coastal Dunes on a Low Profile Barrier, Southern Parramore Island, Virginia by Laura B. Hagan and R.Craig Kochel

Relative Importance of Bacteria and Phytoplankton to Higher Trophic Levels in Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Estuaries by Takisha A. Cannon, Karen W. Wu, and Linda K. Blum

An analysis of vegetation assemblages on Parramore Island using remote sensing and ground-based techniques. by David L. Richardson, John H. Porter, and Bruce P. Hayden

Linking Remote-Sensing with Ground-based Measurements of Land Cover, Net Primary Productivity and Leaf Area Index by John H. Porter, Bruce. P. Hayden, David L. Richardson, Donald Young, Jay Zieman and Hank Shugart

Topographic Mapping of VCR Barrier Islands Utilizing GPS Technology by Charles R. Carlson and Raymond D. Dueser

North Hog Island Chronosequence (HI) Studies

Vegetation dynamics on the Hog Island Chronosequence by Frank P. Day and Donald R. Young

A long term analysis of root dynamics on a Hog Island sand dune grass community by E.P. Weber, F.P. Day and S. Morrison

Biotic mechanisms influencing seeding establishment during primary succession on a Virginia barrier island by Tolliver, K. and D.R. Young

Juniperus virginiana\ as a possible nurse plant for woody seedlings on a Virginia barrier island by Deirdre A. Joy and D. R. Young

Hog Island Bay Lagoon and Marshes (LM) Studies

The role of tidal creeks in the development of a barrier island Spartina alterniflora marsh by A. Christy Tyler & Jay C. Zieman

Low Marsh Succession Along An Overwash Marsh Chronosequence by John P.Walsh and Joseph C. Zieman

Mainland Marsh Transition (MM) Studies

Development of a Process-based Nitrogen Mass Balance Model for an Accretional Spartina alterniflora Salt Marsh: Implications for Net DIN Flux by Iris Cofman Anderson, Craig R. Tobias, Betty Berry Neikirk, and Richard L. Wetzel

Effects of Simulated Groundwater Nutrient Pulses on Salt Marsh Carbon Oxidation by David Christian, Iris Anderson, Craig Tobias

Exchanges of DIN and DOC between Salt Marsh Sediments and Overlying Tidal Water by Betty Berry Neikirk, Iris Cofman Anderson, Richard L. Wetzel

The Potential for Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in Salt Marsh Sediments by Tobias, C. R., Anderson, I. C., and Berry, B. E.

CO2 Exchange and Production of Two Salt Marsh Communities by Scott C. Neubauer, W. David Miller, Iris C. Anderson, Peter Paik

Association of diurnal oxygen fluctuations with the rates of nitrification in estuarine waters. by Rebecca M. Tarnowski and Robert R. Christian

Spatial Variation in Ground-water Levels by Laura E. Stasavich and Mark M. Brinson

The Effects of Artificially Increased Tidal Inundation on High Marsh Productivity by Miller, W. D., Anderson, I. C., Neubauer, S. C.

Susceptibility of Salt Marsh Sediment Dissolved Organic Carbon to Microbial Metabolism in Four Vegetation Zones. by Jennifer D. Aiosa and Linda K. Blum

Tracing Early Diagenesis of Plant Organic Matter through Compound Specific Isotopic Analysis by Mary Jo Geyer and Steven A. Macko

Effects of Increased Inundation and Wrack Deposition on High Salt Marsh Plants by Patty Tolley and Bob Christian

Experimental Effects of Wrack Deposition and Plant Community Type on Salt Marsh Infauna by Steve Roberts and Dave Yozzo

Sediment Deposition on a Salt Marsh Surface by Trine Christiansen and Patricia Wiberg

Studies of nitrogen contamination of groundwaters using stable nitrogen isotopes by Benjamin McConnell, Robert Tapper and Stephen Macko

Other VCR LTER Research : Information Management

Development of the Information Management System for the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER by John H. Porter, David L. Richardson and Bruce P. Hayden

Complementary (non-LTER) Research

Rising sea levels and plummeting terns: An update on the plight of the Gull-billed Tern in coastal Virginia by R. Michael Erwin\*, Dan Stotts\*, Brian Eyler\*, Barry Truitt, C. Randy Carlson, and Craig Layman

Low Altitude Remote Sensing and Mapping of Phragmites Utilizing Videography by Barry Truitt

Progress Towards Sustainability on Virginia's Eastern Shore by R. Warren Flint



Jennifer Aiosa Graduate Female USA Linda K. Blum

Takisha Cannon Graduate Female USA Linda K. Blum

Marie Castro Undergrad Female USA Linda K. Blum

David Christian Undergrad Male USA Iris Anderson

Trine Christiansen Graduate Female Danish Patricia Wiberg

Ed Crawford Graduate Male USA Frank P. Day

Deirdre Joy Graduate Female USA Donald R. Young

Daniel Dombrowski Graduate Male USA Donald R. Young

John Dilustro Graduate Male USA Frank P. Day

Michael Elliott Graduate Male USA Donald R. Young

Karen Farleigh Undergrad Female USA Craig Kochel

Katharine Favret Undergrad Female USA Patricia Wiberg

Dorothy Field Graduate Female USA Donald R. Young

Laura Hagan Undergrad Female USA Craig Kochel

Kindra E. Loomis Graduate Female USA Joseph Zieman

Bowdoin Lusk Undergrad Male USA Randolph Carlson

David Miller Graduate Male USA Iris Anderson

Darcie Neff Graduate Female USA Raymond Dueser

Betty Berry Neikirk Graduate Female USA Iris Anderson

Scott Neubauer Graduate Male USA Iris Anderson

Peter Paik Undergrad Male USA Iris Anderson

David Rau Graduate Male USA Hank Shugart

Steven Roberts Undergrad Male USA Robert R. Christian

Kristina Russell Graduate Female USA James N. Galloway

Brian R Silliman Graduate Male USA Joseph Zieman

Sheri Schachtner Undergrad Female USA Frank P. Day

Jenai Stern Undergrad Female USA Robert R. Christian

Rebecca Tarnowski Graduate Female USA Robert R. Christian

James H. Taylor III Graduate Male USA Robert R. Christian

Craig Tobias Graduate Male USA Iris Anderson

Patricia Tolley Graduate Female USA Robert R. Christian

Kathryn Tolliver Graduate Female USA Donald R. Young

Christy Tyler Graduate Female USA Joseph Zieman

Jed Tomkins Undergrad Male USA Robert R. Christian

John Walsh Graduate Male USA Joseph Zieman

Rett Weber Graduate Male USA Frank P. Day

Ann Wijnholds Graduate Female USA Donald R. Young