MAY 1992

Bruce P. Hayden P. I. ___________________________

Herman H. Shugart Co-P.I._______________________

Department of Environmental Sciences

Clark Hall

University of Virginia

Charlottesville, VA 22903


During 1992 we submitted our renewal proposal for the period September 1, 1992 through October 14, 1998. The review panel elvaluated our proposal and our program and offered constructive suggestions for the improvement of our research activities. Our program was renewed for a two year period (September 1, 1992 to October 14, 1994). During 1992-1993, significant progress has been made in addressing the concerns of the review panel. We have undertaken program adjustments in the areas of project leadership and administration, communications and in further defining our scientific program and long term experiments.

Leadership & Administration Changes

In the two years proceeding our renewal proposal, two major changes in program leadership occured. Raymond Dueser, the Virginia Coast Reserve's original principal investigator, left the University of Virginia for Utah State University in 1989. William E. Odum took over leadership of the program.When Dr. Odum died in April of 1991, Herman H. Shugart took overas interim principal investigator while Linda K. Blum served as Co-PI, handling the administrative functions. In our renewal proposal, we proposed a three-person leadership team of Herman Shugart, Bruce Hayden, and Linda Blum and a division of administrative-labor. The review panel was not convinced that this organizational structure would provide the leadership needed to advance the proposed research program and suggested a re-examination of the program leadership. Coincident with this evaluation, Professor Blum decided that her further career development required more time in the research trenches and less time devoted to administrative duties. Furthermore, the VCR researchers decided that it was essential the program's principal investigator invest the lion's share of his/her time directly with the LTER program and on-site research. Accordingly, Bruce Hayden has made an adjustment in his research program so that all of his scientific funding focuses on the VCR research program; he will serve as principal investigator for the program. Herman Shugart continues to have a major role in the intellectual guidance of the LTER, and is involved in modeling and ecosystem synthesis studies. John Porter will serve as Co-PI and administrative aide and database manager for the project. The VCR-LTER has been functioning with this leadership structure since 1 September 1992. The program is on a steady course.

The VCR has been fortunate in adding several new research scientists to the program in this first year of our two year extension. Dr. Tanya Furman, who is on the academic faculty at the University of Virginia, is a geologist and is working on the sand substrates and sedimentation processes of Hog and Parramore Islands. She is currently advising three graduate students and one REU student in their studies at the VCR. Professor Furman is also participating in the groundwater draw-down long-term experiment.

Dr. Steven Macko, a professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia, is also new to our research team. His speciality is in stable isotope geochemistry. He has two graduate students working at the VCR on nitrogen isotopes as tools in isolating the roles of agricultural nitrogen relative to nitrogen pools and recycling in the lagoons and marshes of the VCR. Dr. Macko brings to our program a new dimension, as well as access to mass-spec equipment and specialized expertise.

Professor James N. Galloway, a specialist in atmospheric chemistry and wet and dry deposition, has also joined our program and oversees our deposition monitoring program. With Dr. Galloway's participation in our program, the VCR becomes an important long-term monitoring station in the national network for the analysis of deposition chemistry.

Dr. Patrica Wiberg is interested in sedimentary dynamics and sedimentary fluid dynamics. An Assistant Professor in Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia, Professor Wiberg is interested in mass transport in inlet and shoaling areas and the hydrodynamics of water, nutrient and sediment flow through salt marshes. We are fortunate to have this new expertise in our program.

In 1992 Dr. David Smith joined the Department of Environmental Sciences and is now fully engaged in the LTER program at the VCR. His specialty is in marine ecology with special expertise in invertebrates and in the study of fish populations in estuarine waters. Dr. Smith is advising a doctoral graduate student and is managing our REU summer program and its extension into the 1993 academic program in the Fall.

In addition to these new team members from the University of Virginia, Iris Anderson of the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences has been awarded funds from NSF Ecosystems to engage in wetlands research at the VCR. Professor Anderson has been granted the normal rights and privileges of access to facilities common to all participating VCR scientists. A second NSF-DEB grant has been awarded to Deborah Waller for her work on termites in coastal forest lands and their gas emission into the free atmosphere. Professsor Waller, from Old Dominion University, has also been welcomed into the VCR-LTER program as a participating scientist.

We expect to add an additional research scientist to our program in the spring of 1994 in the person of Keith Eshleman, a hydrologist. He is currently advising several graduate students involved with LTER activities. Dr. Eshleman is up for promotion to Associate Professor this year; if promoted, he plans to expand his studies to the VCR.

We are pleased that with the addition of women scientists to our research consortium, the number of PI level women actively involved in the VCR/LTER program has risen to 5. Experience indicates that the VCR offers important research opportunites and infrastructure for a wide range of scientists, and that attracting new scientists from UVa and nearby universities to our program is not difficult. However, because the pool of minority life and earth scientists at these same universities is very small and these individuals highly recruited among competing university programs, we have not made much progress in attracting minority researchers to the VCR-LTER.

Scientific and Administrative Communications

Simultaneous with these leadership/adminstrative changes, the VCR-LTER has implemented changes which enhance communications among the VCR scientific community. The following describes these enhancements:

Weekly Meetings -- In September of 1992, we began regular weekly PI meetings in Charlottesville with distribution of meeting minutes by e-mail and GOPHER files to all VCR P.I.s. The summer schedule of these meetings is every other week, and half of the summer meetings are to be held at the field station on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. All PIs in Charlottesville attend these Tuesday meetings; the PIs from other universities are encouraged to attend when in Charlottesville. The Fall and Spring meetings, are usually held in Charlottesville.

Quarterly All PI Meetings -- We hold All-PI meetings four times a year. The site of these meetings rotates, but the summer quarterly meeting is held at the Oysterfield station. The Winter Meeting coincides with the Annual VCR All Scientists Meeting.

Annual VCR All Scientists Meeting -- In January, we hold a research symposium for all VCR scientists, where preliminary results are presented and discussed. PIs submit short (two to four page) papers, which are reproduced and bound as part of the VCR's Collected Works Series, an in-house publication series.

Quarterly LTER & The Nature Conservancy Meeting -- The VCR/LTER meets with the Nature Conservancy regarding research planning and discussion of issues of mutual concern. The winter meeting is generallt held in Charlottesville; other meetings are at The Nature Conservancy headquarters in Brownsville, Va.

Quarterly Virginia Graduate Marine Sciences Consortium Meetings -- In 1993, we initiated a regular series of meetings with the administrators of all Universities that have research stations on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The VGMSC has helped facilitate these gatherings. The goal of these meetings is for long-range planning for the development of the research infrastructure on the Eastern shore and to work toward a new State of Virginia "bricks & mortar" research facility serving all researchers.

Electronic Communication Systems -- We currently operate an e-mail calendar system and GOPHER information system to insure and enhance communication between all PIs on a hourly/daily basis. Details of these communication systems are covered below. In November of 1992 all PIs and all participating institutions were connected to these systems.

VCR's Collected Works Series -- To insure the adequate scientific communication between VCR scientists we bind and distribute copies of journal articles, methodology monographs, reports from the annual VCR All Scientists meeting, data sets and other important contributions.

These documents are distributed to PIs, Program Offices, The Oyster Research Library and The Nature Conservancy. The annual research symposium volume goes to each participatnt, other LTERs and interested individuals.

Scientific Program - Research Theme

Fourteen barrier islands form the seaward margin of the Virginia Coast Reserve. Landward of these islands there are shallow bays, deep channels, mudflats, salt marshes and a contiguous upland ecosystems on the edge mainland. VCR/LTER research at the Reserve focuses on succession, disturbance and system state-change. The VCR is an excellent location to conduct such research. A wide range of marine and terrestrial successional sequences are evident, both in the patterns of the current landscape in the historical records of aerial photographs (1949-1990) and land surveys (1852-1949). It is not clear that terminal seral stages are ever reached, because the frequency of disturbance is high and succession is often set back to earlier seral stages or diverted along alternate successional sequences.

In addition to succession and disturbance, fundamental transitions of system states have been documented. In the 20th century alone, terrestrial forests and farmland have changed to salt marsh; maritime forests to grasslands; and clear-water lagoons with seagrass meadows to mud-bottom, turbid water lagoons. The site, 18,000 years ago, was a white pine and spruce boreal forest with freshwater marshes and freshwater sphagnum peats.

Contemporary rates of landscape change are very rapid. Erosion of the shoreline along the VCR barrier islands averages 5 meters per year and locations with rates 2 to 3 times higher are common. The rapid changes (in both ecological and human terms) make the site ideal for the study of long-term ecosystem dynamics.

During the mid-term review of the VCR program's first award-period, we were encouraged to tighten the focus of our program and to develop a strong research theme that would serve to provide a long-term direction for the program and would form the basis for development of a program on long-term experimentation. In our research we have identified four processes (disturbance, groundwater availability, sea-level changes and succession) which dominate the VCR landscape. We are currently working major experiments (three of them manipulative) to test and expand our understanding of pattern and process in a barrier island system.

Scientific Programs - Core Areas

Primary Production -- Primary production studies in three habitats were continued in 1992-1993: Spartina salt-marsh, terrestrial Myrica thickets and in the lagoon water column. Both above and below ground production estimates were made in the saltmarshes and in the Myrica thickets. In the water column studies phytoplankton and macroalgae production are being monitored. Saltmarh productivity measurements use the methods developed by Jim Morris at the North Inlet LTER site. These productivity studies are to continue in this next research year and beyond. These programs will dovetail with, and serve as the intercomparison basis for, the experimental manipulations that are starting during the Spring and Summer of 1993.

Organic Matter Accumulation -- Our organic matter accumulation studies focus on the Spartina saltmarshes and the Myrica thickets. Accumulations are related to the rate of primary production and the rate of decompositions. Our belowground production studies of saltmarshes focus on both young and old marshes as well as low and high marshes. We find that rates of decomposition vary little with depth; rates are modest to low. Litter bags and standardized wooden dowels are used in these studies. On the islands we have begun the analysis of below ground production across a 120 year chronosequence of landscapes. Soil moisture and substrate age are the most important variables in decompositions rates along this chronosequence. These studies will continue in the 1993-1994 research year.

Disturbance -- Most of our disturbance studies rely on naturally occurring landscape disturbances associated with coastal storms. We use aircraft photography to map the zone of storm influence. The boundary between beach sands and vegetation stabilized areas is mapped at 50 m intervals along the entire VCR coast line. We have concluded that fundamental changes in the status of this ecotone occurred during the 1960s. The movement of this ecotone has reversed itself in terms of its mean direction of movement. A similar reversal in disturbance driven dynamics happened just before the turn of the century and we have some evidence that there were two previous reversals in the last 200 years. We have concluded that the disturbance regime associated wtih costal storms is not constant but varies from one climatic episode to the next, i.e. disturbance and climate change are linked. Our disturbance studies also focus on the establishment, loss, and development of marsh environments. Currently the greatest gains and looses to the marshes of the VCR are associated with major Atlantic coast storms.

Nutrient Inputs, Transformations, and Movements -- In the past year we completed the first full year of measurements of both wet and dry deposition of nutrients on Hog Island. Atmospheric deposition is a key factor in understand the nutrient dynamics of the islands of the VCR. In the absence of nitrogen fixation by Myrica, most of the terrestrial areas with elevations greater than 1.6 m relay on atmospheric deposition for nutrients. Our terrestrial nutrient dynamics studies also focus on the variations in nutrients across our 120 year chronosequence of landscapes on North Hog Island. Nutrient concentrations are primarily dependent of the presence of Myrica and the age of the landscape. Within Hog Island Bay we have found that nutrients are not limiting production and at present it is difficult to find an effect of mainland agricultural nitrogen and estuarine responses. This year we are beginning stable isotope studies in an effort to trace the various pools of nitrogen through VCR ecosystems. Preliminary indications that agricultural nitrogen is easily distinguished from natural inputs of nitrogen to the system. Our isotopic studies are cooperative with the Man and the Biosphere Program, The Nature Conservancy, and the local water authority. These programs will continue through the coming year.

Trophic Structure -- Our trophic studies focus on larval, juvenile, and adult fish populations and their utilization of marsh surfaces, bird census and the development of an adequate GIS based inventory system, crab burrows activity in relation to saltmarsh porewater salinity and marsh productivity, and renewed and revisited small mammal population dynamics. This coming year we will also begin a more systematic program of analysis of water column invertebrates in Hog Island bay.

Long-Term Experiments

Disturbance Experiments -- At the VCR, nature provides ample opportunities to follow the consequences of disturbance. Waves and surges from coastal storms move large volumes of sand across the barrier islands. These deposits are called overwash fans. Some of these fans cross the island and form platforms in the lagoons on which new marshes develop. We monitor the vegetation recovery from these disturbances, record the changes in extent of the various land cover types of the islands, and follow the evolution of new landscapes. Sand deposition on the islands also results in greater volumetric catchments for rainwater and larger freshwater reserves which are used via vegetation and lost as evapotranspiration. Consequently, sand deposition, integrated over time, gives rise to the fresh water resources needed to support high leaf area index vegetation, such as forests.

Parramore Pimples Experiment -- The Virginia Coast Reserve has installed its Parramore Pimples Draw Down Experiment. The pimples of Parramore Island (which owe their name to their appearance on aerial photographs) are small, nearly circular, mesas of sand, 30 to 50 meters in diameter and elevated above the surrounding saline to brackish marsh surface. Elevations vary to as high as 2 meters. The pimples rest on a substratecharacterized by saline porewater, but the pimples themselves contain a lens of freshwater. Consequently, the freshwater lens rests on top of the more saline porewater. The freshwater lens is replenished by rainwater and drawn down by evapotranspiration. There is no stream flow, and mixing with aunderlyingsaline groundwater is minimal. Vegetation cover varies with pimple size and elevation. The smallest pimples are covered by a Spartina patens grassland. Larger pimples have a series of concentric restriction zones. An arid "desert" in the center is surrounded by a sparse grassland, a eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) forest ring, followed by an Iva sp. shrub zone, then a Spartina patens grassland ring around the pimple and finally a Distichlis spicata and Spartina alterniflora marsh. The largest of the pimples are forested with a central parkland. Two significant gradients are present: a saline porewater to fresh groundwater gradient and desert to forest to wetland shrub land gradient.

The Parramore Pimples are natural lysimeters and are thus ideally suited for studying the relation ships between soil water and vegetation.We are implementing a manipulation experiment to investigate this relationship. In particular, we are installing solar powered water pumps to drawdown the ground water in a selected pimple. For a 50 meter diameter pimple, our pumps will draw down the watertable by up to 3 mm per day on the sunniest days. We will control the rate of draw down and will remove water from one pimple and pump it onto an adjacent pimple of similar structure and thereby augment natural rainfall. A third pimple will be designated as a control feature. The response of all three will be monitored.

Sea Level and Marsh Lowering Experiment -- Relative sea levels along the mid-Atlantic coast have been rising about 25 cm per century for the last 500 years. During 1992 we began a series of marsh surface lowerings as proxy studies for marsh changes in response to accelerated sea level rise. In these experiments, sediments below the rooting zone are excavated at low tide and the marsh surface is permitted to sink relative to its original position in the water column. We hypothesize that Spartina alterniflora will change from the short-form to the intermediate-form in response to accelerated sea level rise. These mechanical alterations of the marshes will be replicated during the 1993 field season and Spartina alterniflora productivity in the lowered and control areas will be determined. We will monitor year to year changes in marsh productivity.

Marsh Flume Experiment -- Sea level rise in marsh environments is often manifested as greater frequency of tidal submergence. For a given marsh, the frequency of tidal submergence is changed as sea level rises. We are installing a series of small flumes and control plots to test the hypothesis that the frequency of submergence regulates marsh community structure in the high marsh. Flooding frequency will be increased using small pumps to move water from tidal creeks to marsh surfaces within the flume. The semi-porous side-walls of the flumes will retard the rate of water flow on the ebb tide increasing flooding duration. Changes in sediment pore water chemistry and shifts in plant community composition and productivity will be measured. These flumes will be installed during 1993 as a prototype for a more extensive and replicated series of experiments in subsequent years.

Scientific Progress -- Modeling & GIS

During 1992-1993 we began the process of parameterizing the CPR Century Model for VCR grasslands and forests. This is part of a network wide effort to apply models across sites. In addition we have completed a inventory of the vegetation of Parramore to permit the parameterization of FORET class models. In addition, we have developed stochastic-dynamic models of the dynamics of the seaward side of the barrier islands that permit analysis of the interactions of succession and state change system dynamics.

Our GIS program has been added to through expansion of our GPS survey system, our Laser survey system and a contract with NOAA to map the phase angle of the tides in order to correct thematic mapper based estimates of wetland edges. This work has resulted in an increase in the TM images available to the VCR. In addition, we have established new relationships with NASA at Wallops Station to get regular 200 channel AVRISS images. This program is associated with the installation of the Sun Photometer at Hog Island.

We have also built a new vegetation/evapotranspiration model for island vegetation that is being tested against physiological measurements taken during the 1992 field season. This model will be used in the long-term water table drawdown experiment.

In the laboratory we have completed a GIS based mapping of all the islands of the VCR and an assessment of the impact types resulting from the recent coastal storms.

Scientific Progress -- Data Management & Electronic Services

Based on the principle that all PIs, staff and students need the fullest possible access to project information, several electronic services have been developed in the last year. This is especially important with respect to PI at other universities which have infrequent access to project administration and management activities.

Data management activities in the last year have been substantial. We have developed a GOPHER information system. The system contains administrative documents, minutes of PI meetings, data collections, research bibliographies, images and graphics,and on-line weather forecasts for research sites. Our system also allows access and communication to other LTER GOPHER systems.

Additionally, we have installed an electronic calendar system to track PI activities, travel to the research site, research activities and functions at the field station in Oyster Virginia, and the scheduling of lodging and boat time.



Data Bits-- Data Bits is written by John Porter as a network service in conjunction with the data management committee.

CED -- CED [Climate-Ecosystem Dynamics] is a monthly network e-mail publication produced by Bruce Hayden and distributed to more than 200 scientists across the LTER Network. The publication addresses research on the interactions between climate and vegetation and on related topics like climate change.

LIDET -- The VCR continues to participate in the network decomposition experiment (LIDET). Linda Blum is in charge of this activity.

Network Standing Committees -- The VCR is a strong participant in the two network standing committees. The Climate Committee member is Bruce Hayden and the Data Management Committee member is John Porter.


During 1992-1993 we completed an analysis of the VCR research program's efficiency in attracting funding in addition to the core grant funds from DEB. This work was done in preparation for our contribution to the Risser Committee report on the first 10 years of the LTER program. As this kind of information has not been reported in previous annual reports it is included here.

Our LTER site has attracted four NSF grants from the ecosystems panel (Day, Young, Anderson, & Waller). A NOAA-CCAP grant was funded when we installed a global-positioning-satellite, survey system and provided logistic support. We won NASA funding on account of the kind of work done at the VCR. The VCR is part of a proposal that has made the final cohort of candidates for a Virginia Commonwealth Center ($5,000,000). The VCR is a major asset in this proposal and will be a major player in the activities of the Commonwealth Center. The VCR is very successful in winning companion research programs. For every dollar of NSF/LTER core grant money awarded we have earned an additional 1.3 dollars in Grants and Contracts. Of the $3,570,282 of total non-LTER awards, $913,144 went to development of the research infrastructure at the VCR. This investment will carry forward in to the coming years and support additional research.

Below we summarize these companion resources. Proposals which have directly helped us meet LTER objectives are marked as such with an asterisk (*). Other funding for the site is unmarked.

Iris Anderson (VIMS) -- NSF [$180,000: 1992-1994] "Marsh Dynamics"

Linda Blum (UVa) -- NSF [$60,000: 1991-1993] "Root Dynamics in mid-Atlantic Salt Marshes: Comparison between VCR and NIN marshes."*

Linda Blum (UVa) -- Virginia Dept. Mines, Mineral, & Energy [$12,312; 1992-1993] "Radiotelemetry Networking of Remote Physical Monitoring Systems."*

Linda Blum (UVa) -- VGMSC - NOAA [$158,332: 1993-1995] "Comparison of the trophic structure in Tidal Creeks of the Delmarva Peninsula."*

Linda Blum and Wm. Odum (UVa) -- NSF REU [$18,500: 1991] Research Experiences for Undergraduates.*

Linda Blum and John Porter (UVa) -- NSF Tech Supplement [$63,490: 1992] GPS, Sparkstation, Computer hardware and software.*

Frank P. Day (ODU) -- NSF [$406,500 1990-1993] "Belowground Processes and N Availability Across a Dynamic, Nutrient Poor Barrier Island Landscape."*

Frank P. Day (ODU) -- NASA [$15,652 in 1992] "Root Growth and Development in Response to CO2 Enrichment." This proposal was funded on the basis of work completed to date at the VCR.*

Raymond Dueser (UVa) -- NSF REU [$7,500: 1988] Research Experiences for Undergraduates.*

Raymond Dueser (UVa) -- NSF REU [$6,000: 1989] Research Experiences for Undergraduates.*

Raymond Dueser (UVa) -- NSF Supplement [$228,781: 1988] GIS/ARCINFO Equipment.*

Raymond Dueser and Aaron Mills (UVa) -- NSF REU [$11,250: 1990] Research Experiences for Undergraduates.*

Raymond Dueser (UVa) -- Virginia Museum of Natural History [$18,000; 1989-1990] "Salary support for Takahiro Asthma" This was for two years of support to use mitocondrial DNA in small mammal extinction and immigration study on Parramore Island on the VCR.*

Raymond Dueser (UVa) -- Wistar Institute [$45,263: 1990-1991] "Ecology of non-Target Small Mammal Species." This is a study of the raccoon population of Parramore Island.*

James N. Galloway (UVa) -- NSF [$430,000:1992-1993] "Sulfur and Nitrogen in Wet Deposition of the North Atlantic Ocean: Sources, Scavenging Processes, Trends and Impacts (AEROCE). Hog Island on the VCR was added an AEROCE site.*

Bruce P. Hayden (UVa) -- NOAA [$257,000: 1989-1993] Climate of the Florida Keys and the Atlantic Coast. The VCR site is one of the station locations for this study and the data developed will be given to the VCR.*

Bruce P. Hayden & all UVa PIs (UVa) -- Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, the University of Virginia [$175,000: 1987-1993]. These are matching funds from the University in support of the LTER program at the University.

Bruce P. Hayden (UVa) -- NASA EOSDIS [$12,000: 1991-1992] Using VCR LTER Data Needs to test The EOS Information System.

Bruce P. Hayden and John Porter (UVa) -- NOAA CCAP [$52,917: 1992-1993] Tidal Variations and Wetland Delineations Study. This work is sited at the VCR and the results of the work is designed to permit more accurate analyses of remote sensing data.*

Luis Lagera (UVa) -- TNC + Northampton Co and VEE [$25,000: 1990-1991] Countywide nutrient analyses. This study was a community/science research project at the VCR site.*

Aaron Mills (UVa) -- NSF BSR [$3,750: 1988] Research Supplement.*

Aaron Mills (UVa) -- NSF REU [$11,250: 1991] Research Experiences for Undergraduates.*

John Porter & Herman Shugart (UVa) -- The Nature Conservancy [$5,000: 1992-1993]Land-Cover chronology of Parramore Island. This is a cooperative study with the TNC at the VCR.*

John Porter (UVa) -- NASA EOSDIS [$12,000: 1991-1992] Using VCR LTER Data Needs to test The EOS Information System.

John Porter and Randy Carlson (UVa) -- NSF [$33,982:1992] Global Positioning System Technology Supplement for the LTER Network. *

Herman Shugart (UVa) -- NSF Tech. Supplement [$49,987: 1990] GIS equipment.*

Herman Shugart, Raymond Dueser and Wm. Odum (UVa) -- NSF [$96,941: 1989-1990] Remote Sensing and GIS Applied to Inter-Comparison of Ecological Processes at Coastal LTER Marsh-Estuarine Ecosystems. *

Herman Shugart (UVa) -- NASA EOSDIS [$12,000: 1991-1992] Using VCR LTER Data Needs to test The EOS Information System.

Herman Shugart and John Porter (UVa) -- NSF Tech. Supplement [$49,971: 1991] GIS equipment.*

Herman Shugart (UVa) -- University of Virginia [$160,000; 19 -19] Global Systems Analysis Program (GSAP) This program focuses on ecosystem modeling. In conjunction with the VCR LTER modeling workshops was held and model intercomparison was studied. *

Deborah Waller (ODU) -- NSF [$118,484: 1993-1995] Nitrogen Fixation by Subterranean Termites in Forests. This project was funded on the condition that the work would be done at the VCR LTER.*

Donald Young (VCU) -- NSF - Research Opportunity Award [$24,549: 1989] "Effects of summer drought on Myrica water relations and photosynthesis at the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER site."*

Donald Young (VCU) -- NSF - SGER [$10,000: 1990-91] "Physiological recovery of an actinomorphy shrub, Myrica therefore, from Hurricane Hugo."*

Donald Young (VCU) -- National Geographic Society [$18,122: 1990-91] "Ecology of Myrica thickets on Atlantic Coast barrier islands."*

Donald Young (VCU) -- VCU [Grants-in-aid, $6,931: 1992] "Mycorrhizal associations for Myrica cerifera in a barrier island environment." *

Donald Young (VCU) -- NSF - SGER [$17,999: 1992-1993] "Effects of storm overwash on Myrica cerifera at the Virginia Coast Reserve LTER site."*

Joseph Zieman (UVa) -- Virginia Marine Science Consortium (NOAA) [$36,714: 1990-1991] "Isotopic Detection of Nitrogen Sources and Processes in Chesapeake Bay and the Virginia Coast Reserve."

Joseph Zieman, Bruce P. Hayden, John Porter, Steven Macko, and Mark Brinson (UVa) -- USMAB [$20,000; 1992-1993] Endpoints Workshop."*

Joseph Zieman & Steve Macko (UVa) -- MAB [$40,000 1991-1992] Use of Stable Isotopes as Tracers of Anomalous Nitrogen input to the VCR.*



* = work entirely or predominately supported by VCR LTER Resources

# = partial support from VCR LTER Resources and collaborations of the PIs with non-VCR colleagues that relate to the PIs work at the VCR.


Al-Abed, S. and A. C. Mills. 1993. Gensis of Soils in the Marsh/Upland System of the Coastal Lagoon of Virginia. Soil Sci. In Review*

Blum, L.K. 1993. Root Dynamics in a Mid-Atlantic Salt Marsh. Marine Ecol. Prog. Series. In Press.*

Bulger, A.J., B.P. Hayden, M.E. Monaco, D.M. Nelson. 1993. Biologically-based Estuarine Salinity Zone Classification Derived from a Multivariate Analysis. Estuaries. In Press.#

Carter, G.A. and D.R. Young. 1993. Foliar Spectral Reflectance and Plant Stress on a Barrier Island. International Journal of Plant Sciences. In Press.*

Chambers, R. 1992. A Fluctuating Water-Level Chamber for Biogeochemical Experiments in Tidal Marshes. Estuaries 15:53-58.

Conn, C. E. and F. P. Day. 1993. Belowground Biomass Patterns on a Coastal Barrier Island in Virginia. Bull. Torry Bot. Club. In Press.

Davis, R. and R. Dolan. 1992. The "All Hallows' Eve Storm -- October, 1991. J. of Coastal Research. 8:987-983.#

Fahrig, L., D. Coffin, W. H. Lauenroth and H. H. Shugart. 1993. The Advantage of Long-Distance Clonal Spreading in Highly Disturbed Habitats. Am. Naturalist. In Press.*

Fahrig, L., B. Hayden and R. Dolan 1993. Distribution of Barrier Island Plants in Relation to Overwash Disturbance: A test of Life History Theory. J. of Coastal Research. In Press.*

Foyle, A. M. and G. F. Oertel. 1993. Seismic Stratigraphy and Coastal Drainage in the Quaternary Section of the Southern Delmarva Peninsula, VA, USA. Sedimentary Geology. In Press. *

Friend, A. D., H.H. Shugart, and S. W. Running. 1993. A Physiology-Based Model of Forest dynamics. Ecology. In Review.#

Hayden, B. P. 1993. "Outsider" Overview of Biological Models. Integrated Regional Models Symposium Volume. Institute for Ecosystem Studies. Millbrook, NY. In Press.*

Hoelscher, J. R., W. K. Nuttle, and J. W. Harvey. 1993. Comment on "Calibration and Use of Pressure Transducers in Soil Hydrology." Hydrol. Proc. In Press.*

Hussey, B. H. and W. E. Odum. 1992. Evapotranspiration in Tidal Marshes. Estuaries 15:59-67.*

Johnson, S.R. and D.R. Young. 1992. Variation in Tree Ring Width in Relation to Storm Activity for Mid-Atlantic Barrier Island Populations of Pinus taeda. Journal of Coastal Research 8: 99-104.*

Johnson, S.R. and D.R. Young. 1992. Influence of Salinity and Shading on the Population of Pinus taeda on Barrier Islands. Ecology. In Press.*

Johnson, S.R. and D.R. Young. 1993. Factors Contributing to the Decline of Pinus taeda on a Virginia Barrier Island. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, in press.*

MacMillin, K., L, K. Blum, and A. L. Mills. 1992. Comparison of Bacterial Dynamics in Tidal Creeks of the Lower Delmarva Peninsula. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 86:111-121.*

MacMillin, K., L, K. Blum. 1993. Effect of DOC Source on Bacterial Community Dynamics in Tidal Marsh Creeks. In Prep.*

Nuttle, W. K., and H.F. Hemond. 1992. Salt Marsh Hydrology: Implications for Biogeochemical Fluxes to the Atmosphere and Estuaries. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. In Press.#

O'Brien, S., B. P. Hayden, and H. H. Shugart. 1992. Global Climate Change, Hurricanes and a Tropical RAin Forest. Climate Change 22:175-190. *

Oertel, G.F. 1992a. Paleographic and Morphostratigraphic Studies at the Barrier Island Long-Term Ecological Research Site. (Published Abstract)*

Oertel, G.F and J. C. Kraft. 1993. New Jersey and Delmarva Barrier Islands. In R. E. Davis (ed.) Geology of Coastal Barrier Systems. Springer- Verlag. In Press.#

Oertel, G.F, J. C. Kraft, M. S. Iearnery, H.J. Woo. 1993. A Rational Theory for Barrier Lagoon Development. SEPM: Special Publication #48. Quarternary Coasts of the United States: Marine and Lacustrine Systems. In Press.#

Osgood, D., J.C. Zieman. 1992a. Factors Controlling Above-Ground Spartina Alterniflora Production and Tissue Element Composition in Different Aged Barrier Island Marshes. Estuaries. In Review.*

Osgood, D., J.C. Zieman. 1992b. A Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Substrate in Different Aged Barrier Island Marshes. Estuaries. In Review.*

Ray, G.C., B.P. Hayden. 1992. Coastal Zone Ecotones. p. 408-420. In Hansen, A.J., et al. (eds.), Landscape Boundaries: Consequences for Biotic Diversity and Ecological Flows. Springer-Verlag, NY.#

Ray, G.C., B.P. Hayden, J. McCormick-Ray, A. Bulger. 1992. Effects of Global Warming on Biodiversity of Coastal-Marine Zones. In Consequences of Greenhouse Effect for Biodiversity. Yale University Press. #

Sande, E. and D.R. Young. 1992. Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Growth and Nitrogenase Activity of Myrica cerifera Seedlings. New Phytologist 120: 345-350.*

Sande, E., D.R. Young. 1992. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Growth and Nitrogenase Activity in Seedlings of Myrica cerifera L. New Phytologist. In press.*

Schneider, R.L., W.E. Odum. 1992. Barrier Island Interdunal Freshwater Wetlands. J. Southeastern Biologists. In Press.#

Shugart, H.H. 1992. Concluding Comments, In A.M. Solomon, H.H. Shugart (eds.), Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change. Chapman and Hall, Ny. In press.#

Shugart, H.H., T.M. Smith, W.M. Post. 1992a. The Application of Individual-Based Simulation Models for Assessing the Effects of Global Change. Ann. Rev. Ecology Systematics 23. In press.#

Shugart, H.H. 1992. Global Change. In A.M. Solomon, H.H. Shugart (eds.), Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change. Chapman and Hall, NY. In press.#

Smith, T.M., H.H. Shugart, F.I. Woodward, P.J. Burton. 1992b. Plant Functional Types. In A.M. Solomon, H.H. Shugart (eds.), Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change. Chapman and Hall, NY. In press. #

Smith, T.M., H.H. Shugart, G.B. Bonan, J.B. Smith. 1992a. Modeling the Potential Response of Vegetation to Global Climate Change. Advances in Ecological Research 22:93-116.#

Solomon, A.M., H.H. Shugart. 1992. Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change. Chapman and Hall, NY. In press. #

Urban, D.L., G.B. Bonan, T.M. Smith, H.H. Shugart. 1992. Spatial Applications of Gap Models. Forest Ecology and Management 42:95 110.#

Young, D.R., E. Sande and G.A. Peters. 1992. Spatial relationships of Frankia and Myrica cerifera on a Virginia, USA barrier island. Symbiosis 12: 209-229.*

Young, D.R. 1992. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Potential Moisture Stress for the Actinorhizal Shrub, Myrica cerifera, on a Virginia Barrier Island. American Journal of Botany 79: 2-7.*

Theses and Dissertations

* VCR LTER fully supported student.

# VCR partial support usually logistics and facilities at the VCR

Frank, S. T. 1992. MACIS: The Mid-Atlantic Coastal Information System and the Quantitative Analysis of Marine Processes and Coastal Characteristics. MS Thesis. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.#

Harris, M.S. 1992. The Geomorphology of Hog Island, Virginia: A Mid-Atlantic Coast Barrier. MS Thesis. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.*

MacMillin, Katherine, M. 1993. Bacterial Dynamics in Tidal Marsh Creeks of the Eastern Shore of Virginia. MS Thesis. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.*

Porter, J.H. 1988. Mice in Motion: Dispersal in Two species of Peromyscus. PH.D. Thesis. University of Virginia.#